Saturday, November 13, 2021

November 14 Radio History

➦In 1901...singer Morton Downey was born in Wallingford Connecticut. His national radio appearances began in 1930, in 1932 he was voted Radio Singer of the Year. In 1949 he debuted on TV, hosting the show Star of the Family in the 1950′s.

He died of a stroke at age 83, Oct. 25 1985.

➦In 1920...singer Johnny Desmond was born in Detroit.   He was featured on Don McNeill’s Breakfast Club (radio& TV), and was a regular on TV’s Your Hit Parade, Face the Music & Songs for Sale.   He died from cancer Sept. 6 1985 at age 64.

➦In 1921...Chicago radio station KYW broadcast the first opera by a professional company. Listeners heard ‘Samson Et Dalila’ as it was being performed at the Chicago Auditorium.

The first words ever broadcast in Chicago were, "My God, but it's dark in here!"

Mary Gardner
According to radio historian Rich Samuels, they were spoken by Mary Garden, world-class soprano and director of the Chicago Grand Opera Association. They were uttered 98 years ago tonight on radio station KYW, licensed to the Westinghouse Manufacturing and Electric Company.

Ms. Garden said what she said because she couldn't see: the area where she was standing was lit by a single bare light bulb.

In 1934, the assignment of clear channels took a frequency away from Illinois and gave it to Pennsylvania, resulting in Westinghouse moving KYW to Philadelphia.  KYW used the frequency of 1020 AM at the time.

In March 1941, KYW changed frequencies to 1060 AM as part of a nationwide shift of radio frequencies mandated by the North American Radio Broadcasting Agreement. KYW and the other Westinghouse radio stations remained with NBC after RCA was ordered by the FCC to break up its radio networks, aligning with the former Red Network (the predecessor of modern-day NBC) in 1942. KYW acquired a television counterpart when Westinghouse bought WPTZ (channel 3) – the nation's third commercial television station and NBC's second television affiliate – in 1953.

In June 1955, Westinghouse agreed to trade KYW and WPTZ to NBC in exchange for the network's properties in Cleveland, WNBK TV and WTAM-AM-FM. Westinghouse also received $3 million in cash compensation.  The main impetus for the trade was NBC's desire to acquire an owned-and-operated television station in the fourth-largest American television market. NBC had to seek a waiver for the swap since KYW and NBC Radio's New York City flagship, WRCA (now WFAN) were both clear channel stations; at the time, the FCC normally did not allow common ownership of clear-channel stations with overlapping nighttime coverage.

After clearing final regulatory hurdles, the swap went into effect on February 13, 1956. NBC took over the Philadelphia stations, rechristening 1060 AM as WRCV (for the RCA-Victor record label), and Westinghouse moved the KYW call letters to Cleveland.

However, almost immediately after the trade was finalized, Westinghouse complained to the FCC and the Department of Justice about NBC's coercion and an lengthy investigation was launched.  In August 1964, NBC's license for WRCV radio and television was renewed by the FCC – but only on the condition that the 1956 station swap be reversed.  Following nearly a year of appeals by NBC, Westinghouse regained control of WRCV-AM-TV on June 19, 1965 and subsequently restored the KYW call letters to the radio station (the television station became KYW-TV at this point).  To this day, the KYW stations insist that they "moved" to Cleveland in 1956 and "returned" to Philadelphia in 1965.

➦In 1922...The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) began its domestic radio service.

➦In 1994...FCC adopted EAS rules.

The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national warning system in the United States put into place on January 1, 1997, when it superseded the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS), which in turn superseded the CONELRAD System.

It is jointly coordinated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The EAS regulations and standards are governed by the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau of the FCC.

As with its predecessors, the system is primarily designed to allow the president to address the country via all radio and television stations, in the event of a national emergency. Despite this, neither the system nor its predecessors have been used in this manner, due to the ubiquity of news coverage in these situations. In practice, it is more commonly used to distribute information regarding imminent threats to public safety, such as severe weather situations (including flash floods and tornadoes), AMBER Alerts of child abductions, and other civic emergencies.

Authorized organizations are able to disseminate and coordinate emergency alerts and warning messages through EAS.

➦In 1996...WMXV 105.1 FM in NYC  premiered new Modern Adult Rock format, branding as as "The Buzz", with calls of WDBZ becoming official on November 29, 1996.

"The Buzz" turned out to be a failure, however, and less than a year later (August 5, 1997) switched back to its old call letters of WNSR and became a Hot AC station (later just strict AC) by the end of 1997. WNSR was also short-lived, when in January 1998, they started the "Big 105" phase.

Calls were changed to WBIX on April 13, 1998, and the format evolved back to Hot AC, and later Modern AC.

On December 4, 1998, 105.1 switched to a format that was sweeping the country: Jammin' Oldies - dance/disco music from the 60's to the 80's.

The station initially held a contest to name themselves. On Christmas Eve 1998, the name chosen was "Jammin' 105". Calls were officially changed to WTJM on March 1, 1999.

In 2001, with the Jammin Oldies craze dying down, WTJM refocused their playlist somewhat, to become a borderline Urban AC with the slogan "Jammin' 105-1: The Heart & Soul Of New York."

On March 14, 2002, 105.1 switched to a Rhythmic CHR format as "Power 105.1", going head-to-head with "Hot 97".

On April 12, 2002, 105.1 changed calls to WWPR. Today, the station is owned by iHeartMedia.

➦In 2000...Radio/TV Newsman Robert Trout, who spent 68 years at CBS, died of congestive heart failure at 91.

➦In 2016...Gwen Ifill, a groundbreaking journalist who covered the White House, Congress and national campaigns during three decades for The Washington Post, The New York Times, & NBC: and, latterly, was co-anchor on The PBS News Hour and host of Washington Week, died of uterine cancer at age 61.

➦In singer Holly Dunn succumbed to ovarian cancer at age 59.

James Young is 72


  • Actor Kathleen Hughes (“Babe”) is 93. 
  • Writer P.J. O’Rourke is 74. 
  • Guitarist James Young of Styx is 72. 
  • Musician Stephen Bishop is 70. 
  • Pianist Yanni is 67. 
  • Actor D.B. Sweeney is 60. 
  • Actor Laura San Giacomo (“Just Shoot Me”) is 60. 
  • Rapper Reverend Run of Run-DMC is 57. 
  • Olga Kurylenko is 42
    Actor Patrick Warburton (“The Tick,” ″Seinfeld”) is 57. 
  • Singer Jeanette Jurado of Expose’ is 56. 
  • Bassist Brian Yale of Matchbox Twenty is 53. 
  • Singer-music producer Butch Walker (Marvelous 3) is 52. 
  • Actor Josh Duhamel (Film’s “Transformers,” TV’s “Las Vegas”) is 49. 
  • Drummer Travis Barker of Blink-182 is 46. 
  • Drummer Robby Shaffer of MercyMe is 46. 
  • Actor Brian Dietzen (“NCIS”) is 44. 
  • Rapper Shyheim is 44. 
  • Bassist Tobin Esperance of Papa Roach is 42. 
  • Actor Olga Kurylenko (“Quantum of Silence”) is 42. 
  • Comedian Vanessa Bayer (“Saturday Night Live”) is 40. 
  • Actor Russell Tovey (“Quantico”) is 40. 
  • Actor Cory Michael Smith (“Gotham”) is 35. 
  • Actor Graham Patrick Martin (“Major Crimes,” “Two and a Half Men”) is 30.

Times Hit Piece: AM Talk, Podcasts Called Audio's 'Wild West'

Rick Wiles hosts Podcasts via iHM's platform

On a recent episode of his podcast, Rick Wiles, a pastor and self-described “citizen reporter,” endorsed a conspiracy theory: that Covid-19 vaccines were the product of a “global coup d’état by the most evil cabal of people in the history of mankind,” reports The NYTimes.

“It’s an egg that hatches into a synthetic parasite and grows inside your body,” Wiles said on his Oct. 13 episode. “This is like a sci-fi nightmare, and it’s happening in front of us.”

Wiles belongs to a group of hosts who have made false or misleading statements about Covid-19 and effective treatments for it. Like many of them, he has access to much of his listening audience because his show appears on a platform provided by a large media corporation.

Wiles’ podcast is available through iHeartMedia which claims it reaches nine out of 10 Americans each month. Spotify and Apple are other major companies that provide significant audio platforms for hosts who have shared similar views with their listeners about Covid-19 and vaccination efforts, or have had guests on their shows who promoted such notions.

Scientific studies have shown that vaccines will protect people against the coronavirus for long periods and have significantly reduced the spread of Covid-19. As the global death toll related to Covid-19 exceeds five million — and at a time when more than 40 percent of Americans are not fully vaccinated — iHeartMedia, Spotify, Apple and many smaller audio companies have done little to rein in what radio hosts and podcasters say about the virus and vaccination efforts, according to The Times.

The reach of radio shows and podcasts is great, especially among young people: A recent survey from the National Research Group, a consulting firm, found that 60 percent of listeners under 40 get their news primarily through audio, a type of media they say they trust more than print or video.

Buck Sexton, the host of a program syndicated by Premiere Networks, an iHeartMedia subsidiary, recently floated the theory that mass Covid-19 vaccinations could speed the virus’s mutation into more dangerous strains. He made this suggestion while appearing on another Premiere Networks program, “The Jesse Kelly Show.

“We’re seeing lots of public radio stations doing amazing local work to spread good health information,”  Jason Loviglio, an associate professor of media and communication studies at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County said. “On the other side, you’re seeing mostly the AM radio dial and their podcast counterparts being the Wild West of the airwaves.”

iHeartMedia — which owns more than 860 radio stations, publishes more than 600 podcasts and operates a vast online archive of audio programs — has rules for the podcasters on its platform prohibiting them from making statements that incite hate, promote Nazi propaganda or are defamatory. It would not say whether it has a policy concerning false statements on Covid-19 or vaccination efforts.

The audio industry has not drawn the same scrutiny as large social media companies, whose executives have been questioned in congressional hearings about the platforms’ role in spreading false or misleading information.

Rosenworcel, Sohn: What They Want to Do At The FCC

Sohn and Rosenworcel

President Biden is moving to fill two openings at the Federal Communications Commission, nominating Jessica Rosenworcel as the commission's chair, and former FCC staffer Gigi Sohn to a second vacant seat.

Rosenworcel has been serving as the acting chair of the commission and has been on the panel since 2012. Sohn was counselor to former FCC chair Tom Wheeler. If confirmed by the Senate, she would become the first openly LGBTIQ+ commissioner. Rosenworcel is the first woman to chair the panel.

In a statement, the White House says Rosenworcel has "worked to promote greater opportunity, accessibility, and affordability in our communications services in order to ensure that all Americans get a fair shot at 21st century success."

Rosenworcel has also worked to combat illegal robocalls and "enhance consumer protections" in telecommunications policy.

NPR reports she and Sohn are expected to push for a return of Obama-era net neutrality rules, which would prohibit internet providers from slowing internet speeds or blocking content.

Democrats hope the nominations clear the Senate quickly, always a fraught prospect in the evenly divided chamber. The five-member commission is currently deadlocked, with two Republican and two Democratic commissioners. If the two nominations are not acted on by the end of the year when the current session of Congress ends, Rosenworcel's present term will expire, leaving the possibility of a GOP majority on the commission.

Senate Republicans are planning a strong fight against President Biden's nomination of consumer advocate Gigi Sohn. "I will do everything in my power to convince colleagues on both sides of the aisle to reject this extreme nominee," Sen. Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) wrote in a Twitter thread this week.

Senate Minority Whip John Thune criticized Sohn, telling Politico that "she's going to be a heavy hand in regulation, very heavy in net neutrality." Sen. Roger Wicker (R-Miss.), the top Republican on the Commerce Committee that will evaluate the nomination, said that Sohn's nomination is "more problematic" than the re-nomination of Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel and that Sohn's past statements and positions "could prove to be of concern to members of the committee."

Britney Spears Is Free

AP Photo

An L.A. judge ruled Friday to terminate the controversial conservatorship that has been in place since early 2008, ending the oversight of two conservators who have supervised the pop star’s person and her estate for nearly 14 years, reports The L-A Times.

Judge Brenda J. Penny returned Spears’ legal rights, effective immediately. The decision had seemed inevitable after a momentous hearing in September, though Penny gave no indication ahead of time about how she would rule.

The crowd of fans assembled on Grand Avenue outside Stanley Mosk Courthouse in downtown L.A. erupted in joyful cheers and confetti as the news spread. Then they sang and danced to Spears’ hit “Stronger,” hollering the lyrics, “Now it’s nothing but my way / My loneliness ain’t killing me no more.”

“What’s next for Britney — and this is the first time that this could be said for about a decade — is up to one person: Britney,” said Mathew Rosengart, the singer’s attorney since July, speaking at a news conference outside the courthouse. “I will say that Britney has been put into a position, through our collaboration and the work of my law firm, to succeed.

“We have a safety net in place for Britney, both on the personal side and on the financial side …,” he continued. “But Britney as of today is a free woman and she’s an independent woman. And the rest, with her support system, will be up to Britney.”

The singer had specifically requested that there be no mental-health evaluation and the judge didn’t require one, Rosengart said.

Rosengart has accused Jamie Spears of financial mismanagement of the estate over the years. “The answer ultimately is up to my client, Britney,” he said.

The parties will meet in court again on Dec. 8 to tie up loose financial threads, and accountant John Zabel will remain in place to resolve financial issues involving outstanding payments. Zabel took over as temporary conservator of Spears’ estate after Jamie Spears’ suspension.

'Manningcast' Scores For ESPN

ESPN’s pursuit of Peyton Manning to be a part of “Monday Night Football” has paid off ... albeit in an unorthodox manner that no one could have predicted.

The Associated Press reports not only has the Hall of Fame quarterback made the most of a forum where he doesn’t have to worry about jockeying for time in a three-man booth, but he also has brought his brother Eli along for the ride.

The Manningcast — or as ESPN calls it “Monday Night Football with Peyton and Eli” — has drawn rave reviews, along with plenty of viewers. The five Manningcasts on ESPN2 are averaging 1.59 million viewers. The most recent one, the Nov. 1 game between the New York Giants and Kansas City Chiefs, averaged 1.96 million, which is the largest audience ever for an ESPN alternate telecast.

The Mannings’ foray into broadcasting has been the top story in what has been a strong first half of the season for the NFL on TV. Games are averaging 16.4 million TV and digital viewers, which is the highest average through Week 9 since 2015 and up 9% over last year. It is also a 2% gain over 2019.

“The response from teammates, fans, and the league has been really cool,” Eli Manning said. “The show is fun because I am doing what I love. I spent my entire childhood watching football alongside Peyton, so we’ve had some practice at this.

“We’re trying to educate fans when we can, but mostly we’re just trying to entertain them and enjoy the game.”

The Manningcast is a partnership between ESPN and Peyton Manning’s Omaha Productions. This is the first of a three-year deal for them to do 10 games per season. It resumes this week when the Los Angeles Rams visit the San Francisco 49ers along with the Nov. 22 game between the New York Giants and Tampa Bay Buccaneers.

U-K Music: ABBA Voyage Starts At The Top

Swedish supergroup ABBA made a triumphant return to the UK music charts on Friday, going straight to no. 1 with their first album in 40 years, "Voyage", reports Reuters.

The record is the fastest-selling album of the year so far, the UK's Official Charts Company said, with 204,000 chart sales in its first week.

Only three other music acts have passed the 200,000 sales figure in the last decade: Adele with "25", Ed Sheeran with "Divide" and One Direction's "Midnight Memories".

"We are so happy that our fans seem to have enjoyed our new album as much as we enjoyed making it!," ABBA said in a statement. "We are absolutely over the moon to have an album at the top of the charts again!”

"Voyage", which received mixed reviews from critics, is the band's first album since 1981's "The Visitors". It is ABBA's 10th no. 1 album in Britain.

"This also marks ABBA’s 58th total week as UK Number 1 on the Official Albums Chart – only two other acts in history have spent more weeks at the top, The Beatles and Elvis," the Official Charts Company said

It added that "Voyage"’s total was made up of 90% physical copies, including 29,900 on vinyl, making it "the fastest-selling vinyl release of the century".

Formed in 1972, ABBA have won over legions of fans around the world with hits like "Waterloo" and "Dancing Queen" and sold an estimated 385 million records.

They split in the early 1980s, with rumours swirling for years they would reunite on stage.

Paramount Network's 'Yellowstone' Soars To 14M Viewers

Paramount Network’s “Yellowstone” came galloping back to TV after more than a yearlong absence as its two-part Season 4 premiere on linear TV soared to 14.7 million viewers in Nielsen’s L3 ratings without any boost from streaming, reports Variety.

The neo-western ensemble drama, anchored by Kevin Costner as a wealthy rancher, had its Season 3 finale in August 2020. Sunday’s Season 4 premiere already impressed by delivering nearly 8 million linear viewers in Nielsen’s live-same day ratings.

“Over 14 million viewers tuned in for our ‘Yellowstone’ premiere, which will now serve as a massive launch pad as we sneak episodes of Taylor Sheridan’s new series ‘Mayor of Kingstown,’ whose full season will be rolling out exclusively on Paramount Plus starting Sunday,” said Chris McCarthy, President and CEO, MTV Entertainment Group. 

“Taylor has created a cinematic experience that our remarkable cast led by Kevin Costner brings to life in a way audiences can’t get enough of and we are excited to deepen our relationship with him and capitalize on this tremendous momentum by building out the ‘Yellowstone’ franchise together,” he added. “Mayor of Kingstown” and “1883” are first-up from Sheridan’s exclusive multi-year pact with MTV Entertainment and ViacomCBS, which includes scripted and procedural series for streaming and linear.

As of now, the show stands as the #1 series of 2021 across all television— which includes broadcast, cable, and premium networks, and it is the most-watched season premiere on cable since “The Walking Dead” in 2017.

The 14.7 million figure is up 58% compared to “Yellowstone’s” Season 3 premiere (9.3 million) and the show’s premiere simulcast across Paramount Net, CMT, Pop and TV Land is up 66% compared to its Season 3 premiere (12.7 versus 7.6 million viewers). When looking at the figures from the Season 4 premiere on Paramount Network alone, the drama is up 10.5 million total viewers— 60% in comparison with its Season 3 premiere (6.5 million). In terms of the target, ages 18-49 demographic, it is up 64% in ratings (4.19 versus 2.56).

Production Slowdowns Are A Challenge For Disney+

Walt Disney Co. is marking the two-year anniversary of its flagship streaming service with a blitz of programming and promotions that it hopes will help turn the tide on a slowdown in new subscribers, reports The Wall Street Journal.

The company is trying to woo subscribers with perks at its theme parks and by premiering recent hit films like “Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings” on Disney+ to mark the streaming service’s anniversary, which comes days after Disney’s fourth-quarter earnings showed a disappointing two million new sign-ups in the quarter.

That was below previous quarters and Wall Street expectations, putting Disney’s streaming division on the defensive for the first time since its launch. Disney shares closed down more than 7% Thursday following the report, reaching their lowest levels in nearly a year.

The easing of stay-at-home orders and production delays for new programming contributed to the weaker signups, the company said earlier this week.

Vulnerability in Disney’s streaming division hits investors especially hard after they rewarded the service’s pandemic success by sending shares to sky-high prices, helping the company weather many months of closed movie theaters and theme parks.

Disney is promoting its content and touting its expansion into new foreign markets to help reverse the slowdown, even as the company still has to wait months for some of its most-anticipated new shows to premiere.

Production slowdowns tied to Covid-19 have caused a number of Disney’s most anticipated titles to premiere in 2022 and beyond, and many of the shows and movies promoted as part of its “Disney+ Day” corporate holiday are still months away. On Wednesday, Disney executives said they expect their desired cadence of new titles on Disney+ to come in the fourth quarter of 2022.

Disney+’s next wave of programming shows that the company is relying on established brands and characters to bolster its menu of choices. Characters from years-old movies like “Up” and “Ice Age” are featured, as well as reboots or new installments of properties like “Home Alone,” “Enchanted” and “Cheaper by the Dozen.”

Report: Music Streaming Model Is Lopsided

by Florian Zandt, Statista

Music streaming providers are known for keeping details about their royalty models close to their chest. The only notable exception in recent months was tech giant Apple, which released a statement regarding its payout model back in June. According to this document, its average per-play rate is $0.01, which means that each stream is counted as one cent towards the payout for the publisher holding the rights to the material. Even though this is a comparatively low rate in the greater scheme of things, it still places Apple Music at the top of the payout ranking.

As our chart based on data collected by Digital Music News, The Trichordist and Forbes shows, French streaming service Deezer places second with about 185 plays needed for a $1 payout. Apple's GAFAM competitor Amazon comes in third with roughly $0.005 per Stream, which equates to about 200 plays for earnings of $1 on the platform. The market leader Spotify ranks fourth with a per-play rate of roughly $0.0032 and an average of 312 plays needed to earn $1. While this rate can be seen only slightly below average in comparison, the Swedish music streaming service boasts almost triple the amount of paying subscribers as each of its direct competitors, calling into question the fairness of its business model. CEO Daniel Ek has routinely downplayed such criticism and cited artists' lack of engagement as a possible reason for low payouts. Instead of only releasing a new album every couple of years, Ek told music consultancy firm Music Ally in July of 2020 that "it is about putting the work in, about the storytelling around the album, and about keeping a continuous dialogue with your fans".

Infographic: The Lopsided Music Streaming Model | Statista You will find more infographics at Statista

This dialogue with fans of course is dependent on those fans wanting to support specific artists, a model that has been adopted by Chinese streaming service Tencent Music. While the streams themselves don't contribute much to the actual payout, the streaming platform has introduced micropayments such as tipping to further support artists. It not only makes most of its revenue via a commission on these one-off payments but also opens up another avenue for artists to earn money on streaming platforms. This model's not as easily adaptable as one might think though, with online tipping culture called "da shang" being commonplace in China, but relatively unusual in Western countries

While payout mechanics and models may still require improvement, music streaming has become the most important revenue source in the recorded music segment. In 2020, 62.1 percent of earnings came from streaming services, with physical records and downloads making up for 19.5 percent and 5.8 percent, respectively.

Boston radio: WGBH Names Alston, Siegel As Morning Anchors

Paris Alston and Jeremy Siegel

Signaling a new era for its popular local morning program, WGBH 89.7 FM has named Paris Alston and Jeremy Siegel as the new co-hosts of Morning Edition at GBH News. 

Alston will rejoin GBH from WBUR, where she is a host of the NPR podcast Consider This, produced in conjunction with GBH. Siegel is currently the host and producer of the Washington, DC-based daily news podcast POLITICO Dispatch.

“Our audiences have told us that mornings matter most when it comes to news. They look to us to get the information they need and set the tone for the day ahead,” said Pam Johnston, General Manager of News at GBH. “With Paris and Jeremy as co-hosts of Morning Edition at GBH News, our audiences will get local stories from different perspectives. They’ll engage with a pair of dynamic, smart and accomplished journalists who possess a real knack for understanding and dissecting the complex stories of our time.”

The duo will step into the role of co-hosts in early 2022, after spending time with local news audiences all across Massachusetts, listening and learning about the issues people care about most.

NPR’s Morning Edition is the most listened-to radio program in the country, delivering in-depth reporting about stories that break overnight and set the agenda for the day. As the local hosts of this national broadcast, Alston and Siegel will bring audiences into the center of these stories by adding local context and depth. Morning Edition airs on weekdays from 5 am – 10 am on 89.7 FM. The show also can be streamed online at and via smart speakers globally.

Alston held several roles at GBH earlier in her career, most recently as host of GBH’s digital series Keep it Social. Prior to that, she worked at UNC-TV in North Carolina and NBC10-Philadelphia. Before his time at POLITICO Dispatch, Siegel was an anchor and award-winning reporter at KQED Public Radio in San Francisco.

November 13 Radio History

Lee de Forest
➦In 1906...Lee de Forest, who coined the term "radio", patented Audion tube.

De Forest was interested in wireless telegraphy and invented the Audion in 1906. He then developed an improved wireless telegraph receiver.

On 25 October 1906, de Forest filed a patent for diode vacuum tube detector, a two-electrode device for detecting electromagnetic waves, a variant of the Fleming valve invented two years earlier.

One year later, he filed a patent for a three-electrode device that was a much more sensitive detector of electromagnetic waves. It was granted US Patent 879,532 in February 1908. The device was also called the de Forest valve, and since 1919 has been known as the triode.

De Forest's innovation was the insertion of a third electrode, the grid, between the cathode (filament) and the anode (plate) of the previously invented diode.

The resulting triode or three-electrode vacuum tube could be used as an amplifier of electrical signals, notably for radio reception. The Audion was the fastest electronic switching element of the time, and was later used in early digital electronics (such as computers). The triode was vital in the development of transcontinental telephone communications, radio, and radar until the 1948 invention of the transistor.

de Forest w/Audion tube
In 1904, a De Forest transmitter and receiver were set up aboard the steamboat Haimun operated on behalf of The Times, the first of its kind.  On July 18, 1907, De Forest broadcast the first ship-to-shore message from the steam yacht Thelma. The communication provided quick, accurate race results of the Annual Inter-Lakes Yachting Association Regatta. The message was received by his assistant, Frank E. Butler of Monroeville, Ohio, in the Pavilion at Fox's Dock located on South Bass Island on Lake Erie. DeForest disliked the term "wireless" and chose a new moniker, "radio."

De Forest is credited with the birth of public radio broadcasting when on January 12, 1910, he conducted experimental broadcast of part of the live performance of Tosca and, the next day, a performance with the participation of Italian tenor Enrico Caruso from the stage of Metropolitan Opera House in New York City.

➦In 1913...Alexander Scourby was born (Died at age 71 – February 22, 1985). He was a film, television, and voice actor known for his deep and resonant voice.  He is best known for his film role as the ruthless mob boss Mike Lagana in Fritz Lang's The Big Heat (1953), and is also particularly well-remembered in the English-speaking world for his landmark recordings of the entire King James Version audio Bible, which have been released in numerous editions. He later recorded the entire Revised Standard Version of the Bible. Scourby recorded 422 audiobooks for the blind which he considered his most important work.

Jack Gale
➦In 1925...Legendary radio broadcaster Jack Gale was born (Died - January 24, 2018) .  During his remarkable career he has been a radio performer, programmer, owner, voice-over talent, music publisher, manager and record producer spans more than 50 years.

Born in Baltimore, Gale started in radio prior to the emergence of rock 'n' roll and the Top 40 format.

He was heard on WSRS in Cleveland, WTMA in Charleston S.C., WITH in Baltimore, and WMEX in Boston before joining Stan Kaplan in 1965 at BIG WAYS in Charlotte, N.C., where the station and "Jack Gale the Morning Glory" achieved #1 ratings in 36 North and South Carolina counties.

➦In 1937...The NBC Symphony Orchestra first performed on radio.  It was established by David Sarnoff, the president of the Radio Corporation of America, especially for the celebrated conductor Arturo Toscanini. It was disbands in 1954.

The orchestra's first broadcast concert aired under the direction of Monteux. Toscanini conducted ten concerts that first season, making his NBC debut on December 25, 1937. In addition to weekly broadcasts on the NBC Red and Blue networks, the NBC Symphony Orchestra made many recordings for RCA Victor. Televised concerts began in March 1948.  During the summer of 1950, NBC converted Studio 8-H into a television studio (the broadcast home of NBC's late-night comedy program Saturday Night Live since 1975) and moved the broadcast concerts to Carnegie Hall, where many of the orchestra's recording sessions and special concerts had already taken place.

Frank Messer
➦In 2001...Sportscaster Wallace Frank Messer  died (Born - August 8, 1925). He was best known for his 18 seasons announcing New York Yankees baseball games, and as the recognizable emcee voice of various Yankee Stadium festivities during a three decade span.

An Asheville, North Carolina native, Messer was a member of the Marines during World War II in the South Pacific. After the war, he worked as a broadcaster in minor league baseball in the 1950s.

He got his major-league break when he joined the Baltimore Orioles and worked alongside their noted longtime voice, Chuck Thompson. In 1966, the year Bill O’Donnell also joined the broadcast crew, the O’s won their first world championship. Messer also called Baltimore Colts football during the 1960s.

Messer’s next major-league break came after the 1967 season, when Joe Garagiola left the Yankees broadcast crew to concentrate on the network jobs he also had at NBC Sports and NBC News. Messer took Garagiola’s place for 1968, working with ex-Yankees Jerry Coleman and Phil Rizzuto.

Jerry Coleman, Frank Messer, Phil Rizzuto

The Yankees’ longtime public-relations director Bob Fishel had urged team management to approve a traditional play-by-play sportscaster, which the Yanks had not had since the firing of Red Barber after the 1966 season.

Messer's great Yankee moments included his 1978 call of Bucky Dent’s dramatic three-run homer in the American League East Championship Game against the host Boston Red Sox; and his 1980 call of Reggie Jackson’s 400th home run ("There she goes! Might be upper deck!"), both on WINS radio.

WPIX and its usual Rizzuto-Messer-White broadcast trifecta also carried the ALCS in 1976, 1977, 1978, 1980 and 1981, providing New York viewers a local alternative to the nationally broadcast telecasts. Messer handled the post-game clubhouse celebration after the Chris Chambliss home run that won the 1976 ALCS.

Jimmy Hawkins is 80


  • Actor Jimmy Hawkins (“It’s A Wonderful Life”) is 80. 
  • Blues singer John Hammond is 79. 
  • Country singer-songwriter Ray Wylie Hubbard is 75. 
  • Actor Joe Mantegna is 74. 
  • Actor Sheila Frazier (“Superfly”) is 73. 
  • Actor Tracy Scoggins (“The Colbys,” “Babylon 5,” “Lois and Clark”) is 68. 
  • Actor Chris Noth (“Law and Order: Criminal Intent,” ″Sex and the City”) is 67. 
  • Monique Coleman is 41
    Actor Whoopi Goldberg is 66. 
  • Actor Rex Linn (“CSI: Miami”) is 65. 
  • Actor Caroline Goodall (“The Princess Diaries,” ″Schindler’s List”) 62. 
  • Actor Neil Flynn (“Scrubs”) is 61. 
  • Trumpeter Walter Kibby of Fishbone is 57. 
  • Comedian Jimmy Kimmel is 54. 
  • Actor Steve Zahn (“Happy, Texas,” ″That Thing You Do!”) is 54. 
  • Actor Gerard Butler (“Machine Gun Preacher,” ″The Phantom of the Opera”) is 52. 
  • Actor Jordan Bridges (“Rizzoli and Isles”) is 48. 
  • Actor Aisha Hinds (“Under the Dome,” ″True Blood”) is 46. 
  • Bassist Nikolai Fraiture of The Strokes is 43. 
  • Actor Monique Coleman (“High School Musical”) is 41. 
  • Actor Devon Bostick (“The 100,” ″Diary of a Wimpy Kid”) is 30.

Friday, November 12, 2021

Report Shows Consistent Growth In The Spoken Word Listening

NPR and Edison Research released the 2021 Spoken Word Audio Report today, revealing the continued increased consumption of spoken word audio in the U.S. and the drivers behind the growth.

The latest installment of the Report finds consistent growth in spoken word listening, particularly among young and more multicultural audiences, many of whom are relatively new to spoken word audio. The findings were presented in a webinar hosted by National Public Media (NPM) VP of Sponsorship Marketing Lamar Johnson and Edison Research VP Megan Lazovick.

The 2021 Reports finds seventy-five percent of those in the U.S 13+ (212 million people) are monthly spoken word audio listeners, and 45% (127 million people) are daily spoken word audio listeners. Spoken word audio listening is up 40% in the past seven years, and up 8% year over year, with the share of time spent listening to spoken word audio reaching 28% of time spent with all audio.

A look at a seven-year trend shows dramatic increases among young and multicultural listeners. The study shows 26% of 13-34-year-olds’ audio time is spent with spoken word audio, an increase of 116% over 2014. Similar increases are noted among multicultural listeners: 

  • Black listeners spend 22% of their audio time with spoken word (an 83% increase over 2014) 
  • Hispanic/ Latino listeners spend 27% of their audio time with spoken word (an 80% increase over 2014). 
  • White listeners now spend 29% of their audio time with spoken word, a 26% increase over 2014. 

While most listeners cite the ability to multitask as one of the main motivations for spoken word audio listening, young and multicultural audiences are more likely to cite other reasons such as connection, education, new perspectives, and self-improvement.

According to Edison Research VP Megan Lazovick, “While the growth in listening is really astounding, what stands out from this research is the use of spoken word audio for intrapersonal needs. The young listeners I spoke with turn to spoken word audio for help navigating life’s problems, making meaningful connection, and discovering new points of view – spoken word is, for some, an antidote to a superficial social media world”

Digital listening is also changing the spoken-word audio landscape. Mobile listening has increased 278% over the past seven years, with one-third (34%) of all time spent listening to spoken word audio being done on a mobile device. The increase in consumption on a mobile device holds for all ages, not just younger demos. Of all spoken word audio consumed by those 13+, 22% of it is to podcasts, a 176% increase over seven years ago (8%).

The comprehensive report also includes one-on-one video interviews with spoken word audio listeners, who revealed that they consume spoken word audio as a way to understand different perspectives on the world, and find personal connections and meaning in an otherwise “surface-level” digital world. 

“It’s exciting to see the growth in spoken word audio over the past few years, particularly among young and diverse listeners. The demography of our country is changing, and it’s imperative that publishers and audio content creators are responding to those changes in the audio they’re producing. NPR is committed to reflecting America in its content and is dedicated to bringing new and diverse viewpoints to its programming.”  said NPM VP of Sponsorship Marketing Lamar Johnson.

Nielsen: Who's Listening To What Podcasts

With more people enjoying podcasts and ad spending on the medium expected to grow this year, it’s worth investigating what listeners are tuning in to. The latest Podcasting Today report from Nielsen provides some insight into not only who is listening to podcasts, but also which genres they gravitate towards. 

As podcasts become mainstream, advertisers are seeing some positive results. Indeed, 2 in 5 listeners say they have purchased a product advertised on a podcast, with 29% saying they have used an associated promo code. Additionally, heavy podcast listeners are 34% more active in word-of-mouth promotion than the general public. 

Podcasts have also proven to be lucrative to advertisers hoping to reach wide audiences, as they have become popular among all generations. Per the report, the median age of podcast listeners is 39. That said, previous research from Nielsen found that while 25-34-year-olds are the largest group of podcast listeners, those 55 and older are getting on board. In 2018, older adults represented 16% of podcast listeners, but that share jumped to 20% this year.

Here’s a closer look at podcast audiences and what they are listening to:

What Adults Are Listening To

More than two-fifths (44%) of 25-to-54-year-olds who listen to podcasts say they listen to Comedy podcasts. Comedy is followed by News (37%), Society and Culture (31%) and True Crime (30%) among the most popular genres. Although the median age of adult podcast listeners who listen to Comedy podcasts is 36, it is the favorite genre among every age group of listeners, save those ages 55 and older. Though 3 in 10 (29% of) these older podcast listeners say they listen to Comedy podcasts, the genre comes in a distant second behind News (49%).

While Comedy is also popular with both men and women podcast listeners ages 25-54 (46% and 42%, respectively), when it comes to listeners across all age groups, men are more likely to listen to Comedy than women (56% vs. 44%). By comparison, men and women are almost equally likely to listen to Fiction (51% vs. 50%).

Overall, the favorite podcast genre among women who listen to podcasts is Kids & Family, with 8 in 10 (79%) saying they listen to this genre, compared to only 22% of men. For male podcast listeners, Technology and Sports are the most popular genres, with an equal share (82%) saying they listen to these genres.

It’s not just age and gender that factor into the genres podcasts listeners enjoy. Household income (HHI) also plays a part. For example, the median HHI of adult podcast listeners who listen to Business podcasts is $95,076, while the median HHI of Fiction podcast listeners is $67,885.

Cross-Over Genres

Fortunately for advertisers, many podcast listeners don’t stick to one genre. Case in point, even though it’s the most popular genre, Comedy listeners are some of the most likely podcast listeners to try out other genres. These listeners are also delving into Fiction (56%), Music (49%) and TV and Film (47%) shows. 

However, not every podcast listener investigates other genres. Kids & Family listeners are the least likely to try other genres, with fewer choosing to explore genres such as Religion & Spirituality (18%), Health & Fitness (15%) and History (13%).

The full report can be found here.

Clay Travis: LeBron James Among Athletes Dividing America

LeBron James is great at basketball, but that’s not at all he’s great at. He has also been great at dividing his fan base, according to OutKick founder Clay Travis.

In fact, James ranks near the top of 21st century athletes when it comes to ticking off people, Clay surmised on the Clay Sexton & Buck Sexton Show on Thursday. the show is syndicated by Premiere Networks.

Clay Travis
James’ latest foray into non-basketball topics came on Twitter (where else?), when he weighed in on the Kyle Rittenhouse trial. James has been viewed as a major hypocrite by both those who oppose his stances and even some of those who support him.

While he speaks out against social injustices, he has refrained from saying anything about the massive human rights violations and slavery going on in China, a country which pays him millions in sneaker and merchandising sales.

LeBron James is great at basketball, but that’s not at all he’s great at. He has also been great at dividing his fan base, according to OutKick founder Clay Travis.

In fact, James ranks near the top of 21st century athletes when it comes to ticking off people, Clay surmised on the Clay Sexton & Buck Sexton Show on Thursday.

Check out Travis’ full thoughts from the Clay & Buck Show at their website.

EMF Names Troy West APD For Radio Group

Troy West
Educational Media Foundation, parent ministry of K-LOVE and Air1 radio networks, has announced the aming of Troy West as Assistant Program Director for the EMF Radio Group. 

West will start with EMF on Dec. 1, 2021, and will report to Radio Group Program Director Mandy Young, with whom he shares radio history from their time together at WJQK in Grand Rapids, Mich.

“I’ve known Troy for over 20 years,” said Young. “His skills are the perfect complement to mine and our blended strengths will serve our listeners and team well. I believe he is the right choice to round out our programming leadership—he has a heart for ministry and a track record of focus and success. I look forward to partnering with Troy to take K-LOVE and Air1 to new heights.”

West’s radio experience will be invaluable to K-LOVE and Air1 as he leverages learnings from his radio journey, which includes stops as: Program Director at KSBJ in Houston; Station Manager and Program Director at WJQK in Grand Rapids, Mich.; Program Director of WAY FM in West Palm Beach, Fla.; and Music Director of KFSB and KIXQ in Joplin, Mo.

Dan Arthur, who has been assisting with APD responsibilities, remains on the programming leadership team at EMF and will focus on Music Director duties for Air1, in addition to co-hosting the listener-favorite Air1 Morning Show with his wife, Michelle.

“Dan is a valuable member of the EMF team,” Young said. “He gets Air1 in a way only few do, and he has consistently made excellent choices with the worship we choose to play. Dan’s role in leadership as Music Director is critical to the continued success of Air1.”

Detroit Radio: WDRQ-FM Raises Funds to House 10 Homeless Veterans

CUMULUS MEDIA announces that New Country WDRQ 93.1 FM in Detroit held the Broadway’s Veterans Matter Honor-Thon today, driving emergency funds to provide 10 local homeless veterans with long-term housing. The Honor-Thon was presented by FreeStar Financial Credit Union.

The Honor-Thon aired Thursday on New Country 93.1 from 6:00am-10:00am during the morning show. In those four hours, listeners donated $7,100. During the 8:00am hour, sponsor JDog Junk Removal provided a match hour incentive to double donations up to $900, bringing the funds raised to a total of $8,000 – enough to provide long-term housing to 10 area homeless veterans.

Broadway, On-Air Host, New Country 93.1, said: “Today, we shared many stories from veterans about their time served, and their feelings about homeless veterans. Their inspirational tales inspired our listeners to open their wallets and give a hand up to our deserving heroes. Detroit has the most generous listeners I have ever experienced in my 20+ years in radio.”

Shawn A. Clark, Executive Director, Veterans Matter, commented: “Veterans Matter has helped to house over 5,000 veterans nationwide, and thanks to CUMULUS MEDIA and the Honor-Thon that is currently going on – we are that much closer to housing a thousand more! We can’t thank all of you enough for making sure that our brothers and sisters have a safe place to call home this winter!”

Veterans Matter is a program of, a Toledo-based non-profit 501c3 sparked and supported by singer John Mellencamp. The organization works directly with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to identify veterans in need and move them from the streets to permanent housing. Veterans Matter has a 100% success rate housing homeless vets in long-term housing, and a 91% success rate keeping them
housed. Learn more, and discover more ways to help, by visiting

Wake-Up Call: 'Astroworld' Death Toll Reaches Nine

Bharti Shahani
The death toll from the Astroworld tragedy has risen by one to nine, with the family of a 22-year-old Texas A&M University student saying yesterday that she'd died the night before. Bharti Shahani had been critically injured in the deadly crush of fans at rapper Travis Scott's music festival in Houston. A nine-year-old remains in a medically-inducted coma. Meanwhile, representatives for Scott said in a statement yesterday that he was distraught over the tragedy and has been trying to connect with the families of those who died to share his condolences and give them aid. A criminal investigation is being conducted, and on the civil side, more than 50 lawsuits have already been filed.

➤APPEALS COURT TEMPORARILY BLOCKS RELEASE OF TRUMP WHITE RECORDS TO JAN. 6TH COMMITTEE: A federal appeals court yesterday temporarily blocked the National Archives from releasing Trump White House records to the House committee investigating the January 6th attack on the U.S. Capitol, granting a request from former President Donald Trump. The records were to have been turned over today. The appeals court set a date of November 30th to hear oral arguments in the case. President Biden, as the sitting president, waived executive privilege for the documents, but Trump is arguing he can still claim executive privilege over the records even as a former president. U.S. District Judge Tanya Chutkan ruled against Trump earlier this week, and he appealed. Whichever side loses is likely to eventually appeal to the Supreme Court.

➤DEFENSE RESTS IN RITTENHOUSE TRIAL, JURY TO GET CASE NEXT WEEK: The defense rested in Kyle Rittenhouse's Wisconsin murder trial Thursday, one day after the 18-year-old took the stand, testifying that he shot three men during the racial justice protests in Kenosha in August 2020 after the police shooting of Jacob Blake, two of them fatally, in self defense, at one point sobbing on the stand. The prosecutors and defense attorneys will be back in court today for the finalization of the instructions that will be given to the jurors before they begin deliberating next week after closing arguments expected for Monday.

➤U-S URGES AMERICANS TO LEAVE HAITI: The U.S. State Department has issued a rare warning for Americans citizens to leave Haiti amid the country's severe fuel shortage and worsening security situation. Haiti’s government and police are struggling to control gangs that have blocked fuel distribution terminals for weeks. The warning said the U.S. embassy would probably not be able to get people out if commercial flights become unavailable. For its part, the United Nations has encouraged its employees to stock up on emergency supplies of water, food and other essential items.

🧠STUDY...DADS WHO SPEND MORE TIME WITH THEIR CHILDREN HAVE A DIFFERENT BRAIN STRUCTURE:  A study finds that dads who spend more time with their kids have a different brain structure compared to less involved fathers. University of Essex researchers found men who want to actively be involved in childcare and enjoy time with their kids have a larger hypothalamus– the part of the brain known to play a key role in attachment and parenting. Researchers are unsure whether the hypothalamus increases in size in response to time with children, or whether some men are born with an increased volume. A researcher says, “Dads– like moms– are biologically wired to be parents. Our data revealed that this can be seen in dads’ brain anatomy as well as brain-to-brain synchrony with their kids, and especially so for more confident and involved fathers.”

➤POLL...MORE THAN TWO-THIRDS SAY 'CANCEL CULTURE' UNFAIRLY PUNISHES FOR PAST ACTIONS:   More than two-thirds of Americans said in a new Hill-HarrisX poll that "cancel culture" unfairly punishes people over past actions or statements, with 69 percent saying it does and 31 percent that it doesn't. Majorities across the political spectrum believe that it unfairly punishes people, although Republicans were most likely to agree it does, at 79 percent, compared to 65 percent of Democrats and 64 percent of independents. The poll also found that 71 percent of voters said they believe cancel culture has gone too far, compared to 29 percent who don't agree.

➤REPORT...REPUBLICAN CIATTARELLI TO CONCEDE N.J. GOVERNOR'S RACE TODAY: New Jersey Republican nominee Jack Ciatterelli will concede the governor's race to Democratic Governor Phil Murphy today, according to, 10 days after the election and nine days after the Associated Press called Murphy as the winner. The results were closer than had been expected, and the election night count had a narrow margin between the two, but as more mail-in and provisional votes have been counted, Murphy now has a nearly three percentage point lead. Murphy's campaign had called on Ciattarelli to concede Monday, but his opponent's campaign said they were simply waiting for all the votes to be counted. New Jersey had one of the two gubernatorial elections this year. The other, in Virginia, was won by Republican Glenn Youngkin over former Democratic Governor Terry McAuliffe.

➤OLYMPIC GOLD MEDAL-WINNING GYMNAST SUNI LEE SAYS WAS TARGETED IN RACIST ATTACK: U.S. gymnast Suni Lee, who won the women's individual all-around gold medal at the Tokyo Olympics this summer, says she was the target of a racist attack last month in Los Angeles. Lee, a Hmong American, told PopSugar she was waiting for a ride with a group of friends, all of them also of Asian descent, when people in a car driving by shouted racial slurs, and one of them sprayed her arm with pepper spray before they drove off. The 18-year-old said, "I was so mad, but there was nothing I could do or control because they skirted off. I didn't do anything to them, and having the reputation, it's so hard because I didn't want to do anything that could get me into trouble. I just let it happen."

➤MICROSOFT EMAILING OUT GIFT CARDS: You may want to double-check your inbox and spam folder because you could have a gift card for the Microsoft Store. After some people noticed the gift cards in their email earlier this week, Microsft has confirmed that it sent out 50,000 virtual gift cards to U.S. customers. Half of the randomly-selected customers got $100 and the other half got $10. The cards can be redeemed on Microsoft Store through December 31st and be spent within 90 days of redemption.

🐶DO YOU WALK YOUR DOG ENOUGH?:  Walking your dog doesn’t just benefit your dog, it also benefits you. Carly Loyer, with the ASPCA Behavioral Sciences team, says that walks give your dog the opportunity to stay physically fit, explore the world, and also help with weight management, joint health, and digestion. Loyer adds, “Your dog’s brain will get more stimulation if you follow different routes and visit new places whenever you can so that your dog can experience novel smell and sights.” Veterinarian Sarah Machell adds, “Most adult dogs will need somewhere between 30 minutes and two hours of exercise per day, however, precisely how much daily exercise a dog needs is dictated by a variety of factors including their age, breed, size, and general health status.” You’ll want to keep walks in moderation, especially for small breeds, brachycephalic breeds, senior dogs, and any dog with a medical condition, as too much walking could be hard on their bodies. For healthy “teenage” dogs (when your dog is between about three and nine months old) you’ll want to be careful not to overcompensate for their energy levels by walking them too hard or too long. Machell says you should avoid pounding, repetitive movements that come with running until their bone growth is complete. Overall it’s best to let your dog set the pace.

🏈DOLPHINS DEFEAT RAVENS 22-10: The Miami Dolphins defeated the Baltimore Ravens 22-10 last night at home for just their third win of the season, but the second in five days. Quarterback Jacoby Brissett had to leave in the third quarter with an injured right knee, leaving Tua Tagovailoa, who couldn't start because of a fractured finger on his throwing hand, to come in and put up 158 yards. Miami's scoring included a fumble forced by Xavien Howard in the fourth quarter that he returned 49 yards for a touchdown, a quarterback sneak for a touchdown by Tagovailoa, and three field goals by Jason Sanders. The Ravens' streak of 51 regular-season games with at least 14 points, which was the second-longest in NFL history, came to an end.

🏈BECKHAM JR. JOINING RAMS: Wide receiver Odell Beckham Jr. agreed to a one-year deal with the Los Angeles Rams yesterday. The 29-year-old is joining the team after being released by the Cleveland Browns on Monday and clearing waivers the following day, with no team wanting to pick up the $7.25 million he was owed under his last contract. His release from the Browns came in the wake of his father posting a video on Instagram highlighting times when Cleveland quarterback Baker Mayfield didn't throw the ball to Beckham when he was open.

🏈NEWTON RETURNING TO PANTHERS: Cam Newton is returning to Carolina, with the Panthers announcing yesterday that they'd signed the quarterback to a one-year, $10 million deal. The franchise that drafted Newton Number 1 overall in 2011, and for whom he won MVP honors in 2015 and led them to the Super Bowl, is bringing him back after cutting him before the 2020 season. The move comes after Carolina learned quarterback Sam Darnold has an incomplete fracture of his shoulder blade and will miss at least four weeks. Newton was released in August by the New England Patriots after one season.

🏀ESPN: BULLS CENTER VUCEVIC TESTS POSITIVE FOR COVID-19: Chicago Bulls center Nikola Vucevic has tested positive for Covid-19, ESPN reported yesterday and was put in the Covid protocols. The 31-year-old will be out for 10 days or until he has two negative tests in a 24-hour period. ESPN noted that NBC Sports Chicago has reported the Bulls are fully vaccinated.

➤RUGGS ATTORNEYS CITE WITNESS SAYING FIREFIGHTERS SLOW TO RESPOND TO DEADLY CRASH: Attorneys for former Las Vegas Raiders player Henry Ruggs III said in a court filing that a witness reported that firefighters were slow to put out a vehicle fire caused by a deadly crash Ruggs is facing charges over. The 22-year-old Ruggs is accused of driving up to 156 miles per hour and having a blood alcohol limit twice Nevada's legal limit when he plowed into a the car of a 23-year-old woman, Tina Tintor, who died in the fiery crash in Las Vegas. The Raiders released Ruggs hours after the crash. Ruggs' attorneys are seeking a court order to get fire department records about the crash and fire. A county spokesman, said Thursday that there were, quote, "no delays in response or in the attack on the fire."

⛄BLIZZARD WARNINGS UP FOR SOUTH DAKOTA: The self-proclaimed "Icebox of the Nation" is in the midst of its first significant snowfall event of the year. A large swath of the Northern Plains to Minnesota could see upwards of a half a foot of snow, with locally higher amounts.  For the residents of International Falls, Minnesota, seeing a snowstorm during November is not out of the norm. According to National Weather Service Office data, the area receives more than 70 inches of snow per season, which lasts from the fall into the spring.