Saturday, July 20, 2024

Radio History: July 21


Himan Brown
➦In 1910...Himan Brown born (Died  at age 99 – June 4, 2010). Known as Hi Brown, he was a producer of radio and television programs. Over seven decades, Brown produced more than 30,000 radio shows, including for major radio networks and syndication.

A recipient of the American Broadcast Pioneer and Peabody Awards, Brown was inducted in 1990s into the National Radio Hall of Fame.

Brown produced The Adventures of the Thin Man, The Affairs of Peter Salem, Bulldog Drummond, CBS Radio Mystery Theater, City Desk, Dick Tracy, Flash Gordon, The General Mills Radio Adventure Theater, Grand Central Station, Green Valley, USA, The Gumps, Inner Sanctum Mysteries, Joyce Jordan, M.D., Marie, the Little French Princess, The NBC Radio Theater, The Private Files of Rex Saunders, Terry and the Pirates and numerous daytime soap operas.


When television arrived, Brown produced 26 episodes of the syndicated Inner Sanctum TV series, plus a daytime show, Morning Matinee. Realizing that "all these guys making TV, they have to have a set," he profited by acquiring the studios in Chelsea; they were used for 35 years by New York TV production firms.

Through his non-profit educational foundation, Brown produced They Were Giants, radio programs dramatizing the lives of such literary figures as Walt Whitman and H. G. Wells, and We, The Living, fact-based dramas about the lives of senior citizens.

After the end of most network radio programming in the early 60’s Brown persisted with such series as the CBS Radio Mystery Theater, thereby keeping the art of radio drama alive for another generation.

➦In 1980...WMCA 570 AM, New York, hosted a reunion of The Good Guys featuring Joe O'Brien, Harry Harrison, Dan Daniels, Jack Spector and B Mitchel Reed.

In 1960, WMCA began promoting itself by stressing its on-air personalities, who were collectively known as The Good Guys. Led by program director Ruth Meyer, the first woman to hold the position in New York City radio,  this was the era of the high-profile Top 40 disc jockey with an exuberant personality aimed at a certain audience segment.

In the early 1960s, the top 40 format was still young, and the field was crowded in New York City. Two major 50,000-watt stations, WMGM 1050 (now WEPN) and 1010 WINS, had battled each other, playing pop music for years. Then in 1960, 77WABC joined the action. Ultimately, it was WMCA's earnest competition with rival WABC that forced WMGM (in early 1962) and then WINS (in spring 1965) to abandon Top 40.

➦In 2011...WRXP 101.9 FM NYC changed call letters to WEMP

➦In 2013…Page Morton died at age 97. She was a cabaret singer who married William Black, founder of the catering and coffee business Chock full o'Nuts. As Page Morton Black she was known for singing the "Heavenly Coffee" jingle on the company's radio and TV advertisements and sponsored broadcasts. When Black died in 1983, she took over his charitable work with the Parkinson's Disease Foundation.

➦In 2016…Roger Ailes stepped down as CEO/Chairman of Fox News in the wake of sexual harassment allegations made by former Fox anchor Gretchen Carlson and as many as 20 other current or former female employees of the cable news network.

➦In 2016...Bill Cardille, the broadcaster known as “Chilly Billy,” who filled Pittsburgh airwaves for six decades as a newsman, television host, radio personality, actor and producer, died of pneumonia at age 87. His nickname originated from his host role on the weekly TV movie feature, “Chiller Theatre.”

Singer Yusuf Island (Cat Stevens) is 76
🎂HAPPY BIRTHDAYS:
  • Actor Leigh Lawson (“Tess”) is 81. 
  • Singer Yusuf Islam (Cat Stevens) is 76. 
  • Cartoonist Garry Trudeau (“Doonesbury”) is 76. 
  • Actor Jamey Sheridan (“Homeland”) is 73. 
  • Singer-guitarist Eric Bazilian of The Hooters is 71. 
  • Comedian Jon Lovitz is 67. 
  • Actor Lance Guest (“Lou Grant”) is 64. 
  • Actor Matt Mulhern (“Major Dad”) is 64. 
  • Singer Emerson Hart of Tonic is 55. 
  • Singer Fitz of Fitz and the Tantrums is 54. 
  • Actor Alysia Reiner (“Orange Is the New Black”) is 54. 
  • Country singer Paul Brandt is 52. 
  • Keyboardist Korey Cooper of Skillet is 52. 
  • Actor Ali Landry is 51. 
  • Comedian Steve Byrne (“Sullivan and Son”) is 50. 
  • Percussionist Tato Melgar of Lukas Nelson and Promise of the Real is 47. 
  • Actor Justin Bartha (“The Hangover”) is 46. 
  • Actor Sprague Grayden (“Jericho,” “24”) is 46. 
  • Actor Josh Hartnett is 46. 
  • Contemporary Christian singer Brandon Heath is 46. 
  • Reggae singer Damian Marley is 46. 
  • Singer Brad Mates of Emerson Drive is 46. 
  • “American Idol” runner-up Blake Lewis is 43. 
  • Singer Romeo Santos is 43. 
  • Keyboardist Johan Carlsson of Carolina Liar is 40. 
  • Actor Vanessa Lengies (“Stick It,” ″American Dreams”) is 39. 
  • Actor Betty Gilpin (“GLOW,” “Nurse Jackie”) is 38.

✞REMEMBRANCES
  • In 1967..Basil Rathbone, South African born British actor (Sherlock Holmes), dies of a heart attack at 75
  • In 1967..Jimmie Foxx, Baseball HOF first baseman (9 x MLB All Star; World Series 1929, 30; AL MVP 1932, 33, 38; Triple Crown 1933; Philadelphia A's, Boston RS), dies after choking on food at 59
  • In 1982..Dave Garroway, American TV host (Today Show, 1951-61), dies of self-inflicted gunshot wound at 69
  • In 1998..Alan Shepard, Astronaut and 1st American in space, dies of leukemia at 74
  • In 1998..Robert Young, Actor (Father Knows Best, Marcus Welby, M.D.), dies at 91
  • In 2004..Jerry Goldsmith, Pianist and composer (The Twilight Zone; Planet Of The Apes), dies of colon cancer at 75
  • In 2010..Ralph Houk, Baseball catcher, coach, manager and executive (World Series champion 1947, 52-53, coach, 58; mgr 1961-62; NY Yankees), dies at 90
  • In 2015..Theodore Bikel, Austrian-American stage and screen singer and actor (The Sound of Music; Fiddler On The Roof; The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming; 200 Motels), folk singer (co-founder Newport Folk Festival), and political activist, dies at 91
  • In 2023..Tony Bennett. Grammy and Emmy Award-winning pop and jazz singer ("I Left My Heart in San Francisco"; "Steppin' Out With My Baby"), and painter, dies at 96

‘An Absolute Miracle’: Trump’s White House Doctor Releases Update


Republican Texas Rep. Ronny Jackson, Donald Trump’s White House doctor, released a medical update on the former president Saturday, one week after the former president was nearly assassinated during a campaign rally in Butler, Pennsylvania.

Trump was grazed in the ear by a bullet just minutes into his remarks, having turned his head at a critical moment to look at a chart detailing rates of illegal immigration.

The Daily Caller reports Dr. Jackson wrote that Trump is “doing well” since the shooting in a letter addressed to “concerned citizens of the United States” on X (formerly Twitter).

“I have been with President Trump since that time, and I have evaluated and treated his wound daily. He is doing well,” Jackson wrote. “As reported and witnessed by the entire world, he sustained a gunshot wound to right ear from a high-powered rifle used by the would be assassin.”

Trump still suffers “intermittent bleeding” which requires “dressing to be in place,” according to Jackson. The GOP nominee was seen wearing a white bandage over his ear since his first public appearance Monday at the Republican National Convention (RNC). Supporters of the former president have since been observed wearing similar bandages as accessories in a show of solidarity.

Jackson revealed the bullet “came less than a quarter of an inch” from entering Trump’s head, producing a “2 cm wide wound that extended down the cartilaginous surface of the ear.”

Jacksin said there was “initially significant bleeding” which resulted in “marked swelling” of Trump’s “entire upper ear.”

FNC: Trump’s Speech Delivered 10.3M Viewers


FOX News Channel (FNC) finished the Republican National Convention (RNC) for the fourth consecutive night, leading all of television and making history as the most watched cable news network for convention coverage, according to Nielsen data. 

Featuring presidential candidate former President Donald Trump’s speech from 10:30 PM/ET– 12AM/ET, FOX News Media attracted over 10.3 million viewers and over 2.1 million in the 25-54 demo, with FOX Business Network’s (FBN) simulcast, crushing the competition throughout broadcast and cable. 

This marked the highest program of the year, outpacing the CNN presidential debate on June 27th. From 10PM-12:30AM/ET, FOX News Democracy 2024: The Republican National Convention co-anchored by Bret Baier and Martha MacCallum, notched 9.2 million total viewers and 1.8 million 25-54 and an 367% and 188% advantage over CNN and a 676% and 1040% advantage over MSNBC during the timeslot. 


At 10PM/ET, FOX News Media (FNC & FBN) again broke records with the highest-rated convention coverage since 1992, averaging 11 million viewers and 2.2 million in A25-54. Wrapping up the night, late-night show Gutfeld!, which aired in front of a live audience in Milwaukee from 12:30 – 1:30 AM/ET, drew 3.1 million viewers and 623,000 in the 25-54 demo, the programs highest-rated show yet.

Dominant throughout primetime every night, the network’s programming delivered 9.4 million P2+ and 1.7 million in the 25-54 demo on Thursday, with FOX Business Network’s combined simulcast. (FNC: 8.8 million P2+ and 1.6 million A25-54.) In total day (3-3 AM/ET), the network notched over 3.5 million viewers and 560,000 in the 25-54 demo, growing double-digits across all categories versus the previous night. 

FNC’s signature lineup crushed every hour among the competition: 
  • The Ingraham Angle at 7 PM/ET (4.9 million P2+ and 688,000 A25-54)
  • Jesse Watters Primetime at 8 PM/ET secured 7.3 million viewers and 1.2 million in the 25-54 demo. 
  • At 9 PM/ET, Hannity delivered 8.7 million viewers and 1.6 million in the 25-54 demo, beating the competition with triple-digit percentages and finished as number one program of the night throughout the week. 
  • In the lead up to primetime, FNC’s powerhouse program and the year’s most-watched show in all of cable news, The Five, delivered 4.4 million viewers and 453,000 in the 25-54 demo, followed by Special Report with Bret Baier which saw 4 million viewers and 474,000 in the 25-54 demo.
FNC finished the RNC with 6.7 million viewers and 1.1 million in the 25-54 demo, during Monday through Thursday primetime (8-11 PM/ET). The total day average for FNC saw nearly 3 million and 459,000 in the 25-54 demo, a double-digit increase across the board versus the 2016 RNC. In contrast, the competition failed to draw a significant audience, experiencing a massive drop off from 2016, as FNC occupied 75% of the entire cable news primetime audience. In comparison, CNN drew 1.2 million P2+ and 349,000 A25-5 in primetime and 555,000 and 142,000 A25-54 throughout total day, dropping 67% and 67%, respectively in primetime and down 59% and 66% in total day. On MSNBC, the network also dwindled in viewership, drawing only 1.1 million and 143,000 in primetime and 702,000 and 83,000 A25-54 throughout total day throughout the four-night period. MSNBC lost 40% and 72% of its primetime audience and 26% and 66% in total day.

10:00- 12:30 AM/ET
  • FNC – 9,208,000 P2+; 1,801,000 A25-54
  • CNN – 1,973,000 P2+; 625,000 A25-54
  • MSNBC – 1,187,000 P2+; 158,000 A25-54
  • ABC – 2,790,000 P2+, 733,000 A25-54
  • CBS – 1,908,000 P2+, 523,000 A25-54
  • NBC – 3,889,000 P2+, 900,000 A25-54

9-10 PM/ET
  • FNC – 8,651,000 P2+; 1,552,000 A25-54
  • CNN – 1,719,000 P2+; 537,000 A25-54
  • MSNBC – 1,306,000 P2+; 158,000 A25-54
10-11 PM/ET

  • FNC –10,417,000 P2+; 2,021,000 A25-54
  • CNN – 2,204,000 P2+; 687,000 A25-54
  • MSNBC – 1,274,000 P2+; 159,000 A25-54
  • FBN – 597,000 P2+, 147,000 A25-54
8-11 PM/ET
  • FNC –8,806,000 P2+; 1,580,000 A25-54
  • CNN – 1,672,000 P2+; 502,000 A25-54
  • MSNBC – 1,205,000 P2+; 153,000 A25-54
  • FBN- 558,000 P2+, 126,000 A25-54
  • ABC – 2,764,000 P2+, 596,000 A25-54
  • CBS – 2,137,000 P2+, 566,000 A25-54
  • NBC – 3,078,000 P2+, 665,000 A25-54

Tech Outage Causes Chaos and Confusion


Airlines grounded flights. Operators of 911 lines could not respond to emergencies. Hospitals canceled surgeries. Retailers closed for the day. And the actions all traced back to a batch of bad computer code.

The NYTimes reports a flawed software update sent out by a little-known cybersecurity company caused chaos and disruption around the world on Friday. The company, CrowdStrike, based in Austin, Texas, makes software used by multinational corporations, government agencies and scores of other organizations to protect against hackers and online intruders.

But when CrowdStrike sent its update on Thursday to its customers that run Microsoft Windows software, computers began to crash.

The fallout, which was immediate and inescapable, highlighted the brittleness of global technology infrastructure. The world has become reliant on Microsoft and a handful of cybersecurity firms like CrowdStrike. So when a single flawed piece of software is released over the internet, it can almost instantly damage countless companies and organizations that depend on the technology as part of everyday business.

A cyberattack did not cause the widespread outage, but the effects on Friday showed how devastating the damage can be when a main artery of the global technology system is disrupted. It raised broader questions about CrowdStrike’s testing processes and what repercussions such software firms should face when flaws in their code cause major disruptions.

While outages are common, often caused by technical errors or cyberattacks, the scale of what unfolded on Friday was unparalleled.  “This is historic,” said Mikko Hypponen, the chief research officer at WithSecure, a cybersecurity company. “We haven’t had an incident like this.

George Kurtz, CrowdStrike’s chief executive, said that the company took responsibility for the mistake and that a software fix had been released. He warned that it could be some time before tech systems returned to normal.

“We’re deeply sorry for the impact that we’ve caused to customers, to travelers, to anyone affected by this,” he said in an interview on Friday on NBC’s “Today” show.

For Some, Normalcy May Take Weeks


A global tech outage knocked out operations for schools, media companies and emergency services and forced airlines to ground flights.

One update from CrowdStrike, a major provider of cybersecurity software to companies, caused the problems for millions of Microsoft users while laying bare how fragile and interdependent global digital technology is. Windows computers and tablets crashed, touching almost every industry from air travel to government entities to hospitals. The outage touched almost every industry. Multiple financial institutions, government entities and corporations reported tech issues. Some hospitals and school districts said computers were down, and courthouses around the U.S. either closed or delayed trial proceedings. Still, financial markets were largely operating as normal, and many companies said systems were starting to be restored.

That one update from a single provider could plunge so many companies—from airlines’ check-in desks to consultants’ conference rooms—into a digital dark age serves as a fresh warning of the world’s technological dependence. While past outages, like a Google failure in 2020, have also locked millions out of tools they need, companies’ and individuals’ increasing reliance on automated tools powered by artificial intelligence makes each new disruption feel more ominous.

Friday’s outage also highlights the tension in relying heavily on centralized tools like those offered by CrowdStrike. On one hand, the fact that so many companies use the tools help make them more effective at detecting and blocking the latest attacks. But it also shows how one bug in one update can just as easily grind parts of the global economy to a halt. 

Tech issues

George Kurtz
CrowdStrike Chief Executive George Kurtz said in a post on X that the issue had been identified and a fix had been deployed, adding that “this is not a security incident or cyberattack.”

One of CrowdStrike’s main services is called Falcon, which monitors a company’s machines for hacking attempts, viruses and other threats. The Austin-based company has about 29,000 customers and went public in 2019.

CrowdStrike told customers in a status update seen by The Wall Street Journal that the problem was with a software change it had pushed via Falcon out to clients’ computers. The company said its engineers had undone the change but clients would need to use a workaround to download a fix to affected computers.

Some affected users may be back up and running soon, but for others it could take weeks depending on the system in use, said Simo Kohonen, founder of Finland-based network security company Defused. “The fix CrowdStrike has given is quite manual and may be difficult, in some cases, to deploy at large scale,” he said.

Nielsen Says It Is 'Fully Operational'


Friday's global tech outage, caused by a faulty software update from CrowdStrike for Microsoft Windows operating systems, has indeed had widespread effects. 

Nielsen has confirmed that their systems are now fully operational. CrowdStrike’s CEO mentioned that a fix has been deployed, and Microsoft stated that the underlying cause has been addressed.

Nielsen issued a statement informing you that it was impacted.

"We have been working through the night to assess and address the impact to our servers and are prioritizing the restoration of client production servers.

We have recovered a majority of the impacted servers and will provide an update on the scope of the impact and timeline for resolution as soon as possible."

MLB On Radio: Ratings ‘Incredibly Strong,’


According to Nielsen’s Senior VP John Snyder, radio listenership for Major League Baseball (MLB) is performing exceptionally well. The latest data shows that the 29 U.S. teams in Portable People Meter (PPM) markets collectively average an 8.9 share among Persons 6+1. Additionally, 59% of stations have over a 5 share, and more than 40% of teams boast a double-digit share.

Snyder highlighted that some teams are moving their game start times earlier, which seems to be boosting radio listenership. This strategy is particularly effective in smaller markets where traffic isn’t a major issue.

More Takeaways:

It pays to be a winner: According to Nielsen, the top 5 teams based on P 6+ share are 59 games over .500, while the top 10 teams are 97 games over .500. Meanwhile, the bottom five teams based on P6+ share are 112 games under .500.

Top teams for cume: Philadelphia, first place in the National League East with a soaring 62-34 start, and the New York Yankees are the only teams averaging more than 100,000.

P6+ Cume Persons: Phillies (141,100); Yankees (101,000); Tigers (98,300); San Francisco Giants (81,400); Los Angeles Dodgers (78,500).

FOX News Digital Leads CNN with Multiplatform Unique Visitors


FOX News Digital finished the second quarter 2024 leading all news brands with multiplatform views and minutes, according to Comscore. 

This marked the 13th consecutive quarter FOX News Digital has been number one with multiplatform minutes and the eighth consecutive quarter it has led with multiplatform views. FOX News Digital closed out the second quarter reaching 9.2 billion total multiplatform minutes, 4.8 billion multiplatform views, and an average of 104 million monthly total digital multiplatform unique visitors.* 

The FOX News Mobile app averaged 5.7 million unique visitors in the second quarter, leading CNN’s mobile app which averaged 4.4 million unique visitors.**In June, FOX News Digital was the top news brand with both multiplatform views and minutes, marking 40 consecutive months as the leader in multiplatform minutes.* During the month, FOX News Digital posted 3 billion multiplatform minutes, 1.6 billion multiplatform views and nearly 108 million total digital multiplatform unique visitors.*** Notably, FOX News Digital led CNN with total digital multiplatform unique visitors for the first time since February. FOX News Digital also led news brands with average views per visit in June, averaging 2.8 views per visit.

FOX News remained the most engaged brand on social media in the competitive set in the second quarter with 77.6 million total social interactions, notching the 41st consecutive quarter FOX News has placed on top, according to Emplifi. 

FOX News drove 24.2 million interactions on Facebook (up 39% year-over-year), 47.8 million Instagram interactions and 5.6 million X interactions for the quarter. On YouTube, FOX News secured 507.8 million according to Shareablee.

FOXBusiness.com notched 514 million multiplatform views, surpassing CNN Business for the ninth consecutive quarter. Additionally, the business network delivered 718 million multiplatform minutes and averaged 24.5 million total digital multiplatform unique visitors during the second quarter, seeing 4% year-over-year growth with unique visitors.****

FOX Business’ videos on YouTube remained the most viewed among the business news competitive set for the 21st straight quarter, driving 168.3 million views, according to Shareablee.****

SECOND QUARTER 2024 FOX NEWS DIGITAL VS. CNN.COM AND NYTIMES.COM

Multi-Platform Total Views
  • FOX News Digital – 4,823,000,000 (up 1% vs. 2Q 2023)
  • CNN.com – 3,398,000,000 (down 4% vs. 2Q 2023)
  • NYTimes.com – 4,621,000,000 (up 27% vs. 2Q 2023)
Multi-Platform Total Minutes
  • FOX News Digital – 9,199,000,000 (down 2% vs. 2Q 2023)
  • CNN.com – 5,466,000,000 (flat vs. 2Q 2023)
  • NYTimes.com – 4,867,000,000 (up 33% vs. 2Q 2023)
Avg. Monthly Total Digital Multi-Platform Unique Visitors
  • FOX News Digital – 104,291,000 (up 10% vs. 2Q 2023)
  • CNN.com – 105,877,000 (down 12% vs. 2Q 2023)
  • NYTimes.com – 75,790,000 (down 3% vs. 2Q 2023)

Peacock To Make Olympian Price Hike

NBC’s Peacock streaming service implemented a major price hike for new subscribers this week — days before the hotly anticipated 2024 Summer Olympics are set to begin, reports The NY Post.

On Thursday, the Comcast-owned streamer began charging new subscribers $7.99 for Peacock’s standard ad-supported tier, called “Premium.” That’s a 33% increase compared to its old price of $5.99 per month. The “Premium” tier’s annual cost jumped $20 to $79.99, up from $59.99.

The ad-free “Premium Plus” plan is even more expensive, with an updated price tag of $13.99 per month. Before the hike took effect, it cost $11.99 per month. The annual cost also increased $20 to $139.99 per year, up from $119.99 per year.

For existing Peacock subscribers, the price increase will take effect a bit later – on or after Aug. 19, depending on their next billing date.

NBC announced the pricing changes last April. It marked the second time in the last two years that the network has raised subscription prices for Peacock.

The network’s exclusive coverage of the 2024 Olympics in Paris begins on July 26 and runs through mid-August – with many events streaming on Peacock.

CBS To Air Bob Newhart Special Monday

CBS has announced a new ENTERTAINMENT TONIGHT special, BOB NEWHART: A LEGACY OF LAUGHTER, to air Monday, July 22 (8:00-9:00 PM, ET/PT) on the CBS Television Network, and streaming on Paramount+ (live and on-demand for Paramount+ with SHOWTIME subscribers, or on-demand for Paramount+ Essential subscribers the day after the special airs)*.

Hosted by ENTERTAINMENT TONIGHT’s Nischelle Turner, this one-hour tribute honors the late comedian with a look back at his 70-year career, featuring never-before-seen interviews, and his final interview from his home in Los Angeles. 

The special takes an in-depth look at his journey from accountant to comedian to Hollywood icon, with rare behind-the-scenes footage of Bob on the set of his sitcoms and feature films, from the ENTERTAINMENT TONIGHT vault. Included are new and archival interviews with some of Bob’s closest friends and co-stars, including Jim Parsons, Will Ferrell, Reese Witherspoon, Jason Bateman and Michael Weatherly. The show takes an intimate look inside Bob’s personal life and his marriage to the love of his life, Ginnie, with newly revealed stories about how he changed American culture through comedy.

Newhart was known for his deadpan and stammering delivery style. Beginning as a stand-up comedian, he transitioned his career to acting in television. He received numerous accolades, including three Grammy Awards, an Emmy Award, and a Golden Globe Award. He received the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor in 2002.

He came to prominence in 1960 when his record album of comedic monologues, The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart, became a bestseller and reached number one on the Billboard pop album chart; it remains the 20th-best-selling comedy album in history. The follow-up album, The Button-Down Mind Strikes Back! was also a success, and the two albums held the Billboard number one and number two spots simultaneously.

Newhart starred as Chicago psychologist Robert Hartley on the CBS television series THE BOB NEWHART SHOW from1972 to 1978, and then as Vermont innkeeper Dick Loudon on NEWHART from 1982 to 1990, also on the Network. 

He had two other sitcoms on CBS in the 1990s, BOB and GEORGE AND LEO. Bob acted in feature films including “Catch-22” (1970), “Cold Turkey” (1971), “In and Out” (1997), and “Elf” (2003). He also voiced Bernard in the animated films “The Rescuers”  (1977) and “The Rescuers Down Under” (1990). Bob played the recurring role of Professor Proton on the CBS sitcom “The Big Bang Theory” from 2013 to 2018, for which he received his first Primetime Emmy Award.

*Paramount+ with SHOWTIME subscribers will have access to stream live via the live feed of their local CBS affiliate on the service, as well as on-demand in the United States. Paramount+ Essential subscribers will not have the option to stream live but will have access to on-demand the day after the special airs in the U.S. only.